# Developing PISA-like Mathematics Tasks to Promote Students’ Mathematical Literacy

Ahmad Wachidul Kohar, Zulkardi, Darmawijoyo

bangwachid@gmail.com

**Abstract.** Considering low performance of Indonesian students in PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) survey in period 2000-2012, the need of PISA like tasks promoting mathematical literacy is important to be developed as learning resource for practitioners. For these reasons, this study aims to produce a set of PISA like mathematics tasks which are valid, practical, and has the potential effect as well as explain the process of developing those tasks. Thus, we used the preliminary stages, and prototyping using formative evaluation (self evaluation, expert review, one-to-one, small group, and field test). A total of 67 students of senior high school students at Palembang and 12 experts were involved in the prototyping phase. Data collection techniques used are walkthrough, documentation, questionnaire, test results, and interviews. This study produced a set PISA-like math tasks as many as 12 items in the category of content, context, and process. The validity came from the experts who reviewed the prototype at this stage, while the practicality, particularly, obtained from the revised tasks in the steps of both ‘one-to-one’and ‘small group’. From the field test, we conclude that the tasks also potentially effect to the students’ mathematical literacy in activating the indicators of each FMC, i.e, communication, reasoning and argumentation, representation, mathematising, problem solving, and using formal/symbolic language and the students’ interest and seriousness when solving the tasks.

**Keywords:*** PISA-like mathematics task, mathematical literacy, fundamental mathematical capabilities, mathematical process*

**(This paper has been presented at The Second South East Asia Design/Development Research International Conference 2014, Palembang, 26-27 April 2014)**

**INTRODUCTION** The latest PISA mathematics survey results in 2012 shows that Indonesian students, as in several previous results, only reached below level of items assigned and bottom rank compared to the other country participants, i.e. 64 out of 65 countries (see PISA results: http://www.oecd.org/pisa). This result shows that Indonesian students have not been able to well performed their mathematical literacy when solving PISA tasks. In other words, they found difficulties to use mathematics in a variety of contexts. The low mathematical literacy achievement in Indonesia was also addressed by several studies. Wu (2011) stated that the achievement of many students in Asia are still low in solving problems coming from the everyday world as it is often found in the PISA questions. A study of Edo, S.I., Hartono, Y., & Putri, R.I. (2013)presented that Indonesian students have difficulty in formulating such everyday problems in mathematics, understanding the mathematical structure and evaluate the reasonableness of mathematical solutions to real-world contexts. This study was supported by the Jupri, A., Drijvers, P., & van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. (2014) and Lutfianto, M., Zulkardi, & Hartono, Y. (2013), each of which revealed that the failure of students working on the PISA happened when they formulated the problem to formal mathematics and by the time they get results mathematically, which is then not followed up on stage to interpret the situation/context of the desired matter. All forms of this weakness seems to be supported by the fact that it is a lot of test material in question in the PISA assessment was not included in the Indonesian mathematics curriculum (Kemdikbud, 2013).

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Posted on March 11, 2015, in Assessment in Math Education, Research in Mathematics Education and tagged assessment mathematics, developmental research, mathematical literacy, PISA Indonesia, PISA mathematics. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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